Maratha Empire : Whenever the word Maratha is mentioned, the first thing that comes to mind is the great Maratha Shivaji Maharaj, who illuminated the Maratha Empire with his amazing prowess. Shivaji Maharaj was the founder of the Maratha Empire and a great patriot. Who is famous for “who weighed the power of the Mughals on the sword”.
History of the Maratha Empire
Establishment of the Maratha Empire
|When was the Maratha Empire founded?||In 1674|
|Founded by||By Shivaji Maharaj|
|Capital of the Maratha Empire||Raigad was there at that time|
Shivaji Maharaj was born on 20 April 1627 at Shivner fort near Pune, he founded the Maratha Empire in 1674. In 1656, on his birthday, Shivaji Maharaj declared Raigad as the capital of his empire, which is said to be the establishment of an independent Maratha empire.
The deeds of Shivaji Maharaj
- Shivaji Maharaj conquered Sinhagad fort of Bijapur in 1643.
- Toran Fort was conquered in 1643.
- In 1659, Afzal Khan was defeated.
- In 1663, Shaista Khan was defeated.
- Shivaji died on 12 April 1680.
Situation after Shivaji’s death
After his death, Shivaji left behind a vast empire as well as a powerful army. 300 forts, 40000 cavalry, 5000 infantry, west coast naval ships. His son after Shivaji’s death Sambhaji RajRajh Enthroned
Shambhaji was born
Shambhaji was born in 1680, Shambhaji was also an ambitious and brave warrior like his father Shivaji Maharaj, Shambhaji defeated Chikka Dev Raya of Portugal and Mysore. Shambaji died in 1689. After his death, his son Raja Rai ascended the throne.
King Rai was born
1670 Born at Rajgad fort, died 3rd March 1700 at Sinhagad fort. When Raja Rai died, his son Shivaji Ditia was only 4 years old. By the time Tarabai Bhonsle, Rajarama’s first wife, the Maratha kingdom was in trouble. He took over the state by declaring his young son Shivaji II as his successor.
Tarabai Bhosale was a brave woman, for 7 years Tarabai gave a tough competition to Aurangzeb and took the Maratha chiefs one by one.
- Tarabai was born in 1675 (Satara).
- Death of Tarabai: – 9 December 1761 (Satara)
Tarabai’s political performance
The throne did not remain safe after the death of her husband Raja Ram, the son was also a minor. He took over the reins of government by using his young son as a tool. Tarabai’s thinking was far-sighted, she knew that Aurangzeb would attack if the throne was left empty. Tarabai gave a bitter blow to Aurangzeb and emphasized on Maratha unity. After his death, his son Shivaji, sitting on the throne of II, took over the reigns.
- Born: – 9 June 1696
- Died: – 14 March 1726 (Raigad fort)
Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj
Amba Sahuji Maharaj took over the reins of the Maratha Empire in 1717. Chhatrapati Shahuji, a descendant of Shivaji, was an ambitious emperor.
Sahuji Maharaj established the states of Satara and Kolhapur in 1707. Dhar Indore Gwalior was also a part of the Maratha Empire and there was also a wave of Maratha Empire. Sahuji Maharaj died on 15 December 1749 at Satara. Rajaram In 1950, Rajaram took over the reins of the Maratha Empire.
In 1777, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj became the ruler of the second Maratha Empire. From his childhood he had hatred for the Mughals, he fought the Mughals till the last moment. He died in 1808. Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj was the last ruler of the second Maratha Empire. After this the Maratha Empire fell into the hands of the Peshwas. The Mahamatya (Prime Minister) of the Peshwa Maratha Emperor was living here, from here the decline of the Marathas began.
Reasons for the decline of the Marathas
There is no single cause of the downfall of any great empire but there are many reasons for it. Only then does the vast empire collapse. If we look for the reasons for the decline of the Marathas, the main reasons are as follows. After Sahuji III, there was no ruler who was far-sighted and could recognize the situation. After Sahuji III, everyone started arguing with each other.
He did not emphasize unity, which benefited the Peshwa to the fullest. The Peshwa was his prime minister. After Sahuji III, there was a big shortage in the organization. Alcohol and kebabs became his weakness, his flawed policy also caused his downfall. Injustice also became a major cause of oppression and internal strife. Their mutual disintegration directly benefited the Peshwas and there are many other reasons for their decline.
My thoughts on the Maratha Empire
Shivaji Maharaj’s tireless work, courage, bravery, foresight, justice system, loyalty to the people took the Maratha Empire to that height. At that time, the present economic, political and entire system of India was under the control of Mughals. Under adverse circumstances, Shivaji Maharaj strongly opposed the Mughals, opposed them and strengthened the organization. While Shivaji Maharaj was alive till his last days, the Maratha Empire had become the main center of power.
Shivaji Maharaj was so visionary that he knew that the strength of the enemy would be realized only if the army remained strong. Shivaji Maharaj strengthened infantry, cavalry and navy. He had control over every function of the kingdom until his last days. After his death, his heirs from Shambhaji to Sahuji III defended the empire.
After Shah, his successor became weak, which benefited the Peshwa to the fullest. There came a time when the kingdom came under the control of the Peshwas. From there the Peshwa dynasty was established. The Peshwas began to take all important decisions in the economic and social politics of the state. Until then, the Maratha emperor was only a puppet. The Peshwa dynasty was born only after the fall of the last Maratha emperor. This continued till the Mughals conquered the whole of India.
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