Essay on the Emergency in India


An emergency is an unbalanced state of any country when the country fears any kind of external or internal threat. The Constitution of India gives certain powers to the President of the country, which the President exercises in case the political or constitutional system of the whole country or any state fails.

Long essay on the emergency in India

Today, through this essay, we will learn about some important facts related to the emergency in India.

Emergency in India: Causes and Consequences – 1100 word essay


All those important issues pertaining to the country, the state and their citizens are enshrined in the Indian Constitution, which has given India the status of a democratic nation. Some of these issues mentioned in the Constitution are about the ways to deal with administrative failures in the country or the state. The President of India reviews the situation and uses it only when he deems it necessary. The president does not need to consult anyone in an emergency. The president can declare a state of emergency in the whole country or in any one state, according to the powers given in the constitution.

What is an emergency? (What is an emergency?)

An emergency is an unbalanced situation in an entire country or in any state in which the constitutional and administrative balance has been disturbed. The Indian Constitution has written about some of the powers of the President, when one of the powers that the President can use is emergency. When there is a situation of famine, invasion of foreign countries or internal administrative chaos in the whole country or any state, then all the political and administrative powers in that region go to the President.

What are the emergency provisions and conditions? (What are the emergency provisions and conditions?)

Under Article 352, Article 356 and Article 360 ​​of the Indian Constitution, the state of emergency in India and the important things related to it are well written. According to these articles, there are three states of emergency-

  1. National Emergency – Section 352 (National EmergencySection 352)

In the event of war, famine, external aggression or internal security failure in the country, a national emergency is declared on the advice of the President’s Cabinet. In the event of a national emergency, all rights go to the government. In the meantime, almost all the rights of citizens except Article 20 and Article 21 are taken away.

  • Presidential rule or state of emergency – Section 356 (Presidential regime or state emergency Section 356)

Presidential rule or state emergency, as mentioned under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution, is imposed by the President of a country due to political or constitutional failure in a state. In the event of a state emergency, the center assumes all powers except the judicial power of that state. The presidential term is limited to a minimum of 2 months and a maximum of 3 years.

  • Financial Emergency – Article 360 ​​(Financial emergency Section 360)

The state of emergency in the country is provided for in Article 360 ​​of the Constitution, which applies to the President in the event of a financial crisis, government bankruptcy, etc. During this emergency, the government has established control over the property of the citizens. This emergency has never been used in the history of India.

How many times has an emergency been declared in India? (How often is an emergency in India?)

So far, a total of three states of emergency have been declared in India, including the National Emergency under Section 352 in 1962, 1971 and 1975.

  • The Emergency of 1962

The first and longest emergency was declared in 1962. The state of emergency lasted from 1962 to 1968. The main reason for this emergency was the invasion of India by China and Pakistan.

  • 1971 Emergency

The cause of the national emergency in 1971 was the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971.

  • The Emergency of 1975

The main reason for the imposition of national emergency in 15 in 5 was the failure of the internal system. The emergency came out as the most controversial announcement. After much criticism, it was repealed in 1977, and the court declared the state of emergency an unjust act.

Who declared Emergency in India in 1975? (Who declared Emergency in India in 1975?)

The 1975 national emergency in India was declared by former President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed on the advice of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Opposition leader Raj Narayan strongly opposed the emergency. After some time, the rest of the people also fell asleep due to this emergency. During this period, under the leadership of Sanjay Gandhi, people were captured and forced to undergo sterilization across the country. This caused great resentment among the people and Indira Gandhi had to bear the brunt of it in her next Lok Sabha elections.

Date of Emergency in India (Date of Emergency in India)

India has so far declared three emergencies, the dates of which are as follows-

  • October 26, 1962
  • December 3, 1971
  • June 25, 1975

Why was a state of emergency declared in India in 1975?? (Why Emergency was declared in India in 1975 / National Emergency in India in 1975)

In the 1971 Lok Sabha elections, Indira Gandhi defeated Raj Narayan by a wide margin. After Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister for four years, Raj Narayan challenged the election results in the High Court. Raj Narayan had accused Indira Gandhi of spending more than a certain limit in the elections and abusing government rules.

After investigation, the court accepted Raj Narayan’s allegations and on June 12, 1975, Allahabad High Court Judge Jagmohanlal Sinha removed Indira Gandhi from office for six years. A total of 14 charges were proved against Indira Gandhi but she rejected the court’s decision. Raj Narayan made many agitations for the resignation of Indira Gandhi, but Indiraji issued the ordinance on June 25, 1975 and the then President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed imposed a state of emergency.

Emergency causes and consequencesEmergency consequences and causes in India)

Emergencies in a country or state apply only when unforeseen circumstances arise in which the local administration cannot cope with the current situation. The main causes of emergencies are external aggression, drought, internal system failure or economic downturn. When an emergency is imposed, it has a direct effect on the citizens. When the fundamental rights of citizens are violated in times of emergency, only the fundamental rights of Sections 20 and 21 are valid.


It is very difficult for the government of any country to declare an emergency. Normally no government supports an emergency. But some difficult circumstances require governments to make this decision from time to time. All operations in the country have come to a standstill due to the imposition of emergency. The country’s growth rate also slows down, leaving the country lagging behind economically for a few years.

Frequently Asked Questions: Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1 – When was the first emergency declared in India?

Answer – The first state of emergency in India was declared on October 26, 1962.

Question 2 – Why is an emergency imposed?

Answer – In the event of an external or internal disaster, an emergency is imposed on the entire country or any state.

Question 3 – Which article of the Constitution mentions emergency?

Answer – Emergencies are mentioned in Sections 352, 356 and 360.

Question 4 – When was the last state of emergency imposed in India?

Answer – The last state of emergency was declared in India between 1975 and 1977.


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